What is Artificial Intelligence?
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the imitation of human intelligence processes by hardware and software systems. These processes include learning, finding meaning, and drawing conclusions from mistakes. Examples of specific applications of artificial intelligence are expert systems, speech recognition, and machine vision.
It is possible to classify an artificial intelligence as weak and strong. Weak AI, also known as narrow AI (narrow AI), artificial intelligences are designed to do specific tasks. Artificial intelligence such as Siri and Google Assistant are in this category. Strong AI (Artificial General Intelligence) has the understanding of human intelligence. Even if given an unfamiliar task, powerful AI can come up with a solution without human assistance.
Because hardware, software, and personnel costs for AI can be expensive, many vendors include access to AI components as well as Artificial Intelligence as a Service (AIaaS) platforms in their standard offerings. AI as a service enables individuals and companies to experiment with AI for various business purposes and sample multiple platforms before making a commitment. Popular AI cloud offerings include Amazon AI services, IBM Watson Assistant, Microsoft Cognitive Services, and Google AI services.
Some industry experts believe the term AI is too closely linked to popular culture, raising the public's unrealistic fears about how AI will change life. Researchers and marketers hope that augmented intelligence, which has a more neutral connotation, will help humans because artificial intelligence is developed only for service, not intended to replace humans.
Although the term artificial intelligence emerged in the early 1950s, it is a controversial field that has gained serious popularity in recent years with the rapid development of today's technology. The reason for the debates is that the machine's ability to think like a human raises some ethical problems. That's why AI advocates did not find support for a long time. Until IBM's Deep Blue computer defeated Russian chess master Garry Kasparov. Subsequently, the computer "Watson", also produced by IBM, won the "Jeopardy", a question and answer program, in 2011 by beating the champions Brad Rutter and Ken Jennings.
So how do we decide whether a machine is intelligent or not? Here, it is possible to decide on the circuit with the Turing Test, which belongs to the famous mathematician and computer scientist Alan Turing and is named after him. If a referee who witnesses a written conversation between a human and an artificial intelligence cannot understand which is human and which is computer, this artificial intelligence has passed the turing test. According to the test, a computer that convinces the other person that it is human is considered to be able to "think" if it passes the test.
Recently, in 2014, Eugene Goostman-original software, programmed like a 13-year-old Ukrainian student, passed the Turing test for the first time, convincing the judges that he was a bloody human being.